What is GDP?
GDP means Gross Domestic Product, which is the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year.

GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is a measure of a country’s production or income. In simple words, it is the sum of all the incomes of the people living in a particular country. It is the value of a country's overall output of the respected goods and services at market prices. The GDP does not include the net abroad income. For instance, the GDP of US is $15 trillion.

The GDP is one of the simplest & intuitive measures of a country, which tracks its economy and the net imported income. It helps the country to find its economical progress and development. Usually, GDP is expressed as a comparison to the previous quarter or year. It primarily indicates and reflects the health of a country. A country’s recession wholly is dependent on the GDP of the country. GDP is generally shown by representing on a Graph.

The GDP is basically measured as: Y = C + I + E + G.

Where, Y= GDP, C= Consumer Spending,  I= Investment made by industry,  E= Excess of Exports over Imports, G= Government Spending. 

Generally, GDP is determined in three ways, which are similar in all the aspects:

Production Approach: It is the market value of all final goods and services calculated during the 1 year. This approach is also called as a Net Product or Value added method. Symbolically, it is calculated as:

  • Net Value Added = Gross Value of output – Value of Intermediate Consumption.

Income Approach: It is the sum total of incomes of individuals living in a country during 1 year. Here, the GDP is calculated as:

  • GDP = Compensation of Employees + Gross Operating Surplus + Gross Mixed Income + Taxes Less Subsidies on Production and Imports.

And the total Factor income is expressed as:

  • Total factor income = Employee Compensation + Corporate Profits + Proprietor's Income + Rental Income + Net Interest. 

Expenditure Approach: These are all expenditure incurred by individuals during 1 year. Here the GDP is expressed as:

  • GDP (Y) = Final Consumption Expenditure (FCE) + Net Exports (X – M).

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