India is the most populous democracy of the world. The Constitution of India determines its political framework, under which all operations of political and national interests are carried out. Being a democracy, India’s true rulers are its citizens. The government of India follows the federal form of government, and is socialist and secular in nature. As per the constitutional framework of India, its citizens reserve the right to choose their leaders. For this purpose, nationwide elections are held once in every five years, which is the duration of a full term. Various political parties contest the elections, after which the winner forms the government individually, or by forming a coalition of parties.
The elected members from various constituencies of the country make up the lower house of the Indian Parliament, which is known as the Lok Sabha. The other house of the Parliament, i.e. its upper house, the Rajya Sabha, comprises of members elected from the different state and territorial legislatures, and also the ones appointed by the President of India. Both the houses work in tandem to pass various policies, bills, legislations, laws, etc., but the lower house especially takes precedence in these matters. The government is effectively run by a cabinet of ministers for different departments such as finance, communication, human resource, etc. The Prime Minister is the head of the cabinet and also the government. He is the one responsible for the smooth functioning of the government and the nation as a whole.
However, the Prime Minister is not the ultimate authority of the country, as the President of India holds the right to dissolve the parliament if he/she deems it right. He/she can also declare a state of emergency, or President’s rule at such a time. The President is the nominal head of the country, but he/she needs to be made aware of all the policy changes and the state of affairs in the nation. Like the President of India, each state of the country has a Governor to supervise the functioning of the government. The Governor also reserves the rights to dissolve a state assembly and call for fresh elections in the state. Though, the Governor doesn’t hold as much power as the President of India. Moreover, the central government also reserves the rights to interfere in the affairs of any state, without consulting the immediate state government.
Therefore, it can be said that the Indian political system is elaborately designed and provisioned by its Constitutional framework.