Each year on 26th January, India celebrates the adoption of ‘its Constitution’ as the Republic Day.
On August 15, 1947, India, following the independence movement, finally achieved independence from the British rule. However, the cost of independence had to be paid by the Indian Independence Act, when India was divided into two new and independent dominions: India and Pakistan.
India obtained its independence under constitutional monarchy, wherein the country did not yet have a permanent constitution; instead its laws were based on the modified colonial Government of India. On August 1947, a committee to draft the Constitution of India was formed.
Under the watch of the chairman, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the committee submitted the drafts to the Indian Assembly. It was then, on January 24, 1950, after a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days, and a few modifications later, that the Constitution was signed by the 308 members of the Indian legislative assembly.
Two days later, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution came into effect throughout the nation, and India became a republic and secular state. The Constitution gave the Indian citizens the power to govern themselves by choosing their own government. Dr Rajendra Prasad took the oath as India's first president at the Durbar Hall in the Government House, followed by a residential drive along a route to the Irwin Stadium, where he unfurled India's national flag. Ever since this historic day, January 26 is celebrated with festivities and patriotic fervor across India.
This date was also chosen as it was the anniversary of Purna Swaraj Day, which was held on January 26, 1930.